Urban heat island effect
Urban forestry, urban greenspace, water sensitive urban design using vegetation and living roofs/walls all provide shade and absorb incident solar radiation.
In the absence of vegetation, physical shade/sail structures may provide one of the few means to reduce heat exposure to people in exposed spaces (but will not address the heat island effect).
Urban storm water
Water sensitive urban design (WSUD) allowing drainage via vegetated retention basins reduces peak flows and filters contaminants from water prior to discharge to streams.
Engineered drainage via hard channels results in direct discharge to surface waters without filtering of contaminants, and may produce increased storm-flow rates and flood potential.
Evidence is growing that use of natural building products such as wood lowers sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and provides a healthier working and living environment.
Use of non-natural building products.